2024-04-12

Managing Your Data Workspace: Users and Schemas in Oracle

database oracle schema
  • User: This is the account you use to log in to the database. It acts like your ID card for the database system. Users can be granted permissions to access and manipulate data.

  • Schema: Think of this as the user's workspace within the database. It holds all the data objects (tables, views, indexes, etc.) that the user owns. In Oracle, when you create a user, a schema with the same name is automatically created.

Here's an analogy: Imagine the database as a giant office building. Users are the employees with ID cards granting them access. Schemas are their individual offices where they keep their desks, files, and work-related items.

Key Points:

  • There's a one-to-one correspondence between users and schemas (usually having the same name).
  • Users can be granted permissions that allow them to create and manage objects within their schema.
  • While a user account can exist without a schema (if they have limited privileges), it's not very common.

Additional Notes:

  • Oracle also allows creating a schema independently using the CREATE SCHEMA statement, but this is less common.
  • Unlike some other database systems, Oracle doesn't have a separate concept like "database" within a schema. The user/schema owns the data directly in the database.


Creating a User (Schema is created automatically):

CREATE USER new_user IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

GRANT CONNECT TO new_user;

This code creates a new user named "new_user" with the password "password". The GRANT CONNECT statement gives the user the basic permission to connect to the database. In the background, Oracle also creates a schema named "new_user" to hold any database objects this user might create.

Verifying User and Schema Relationship:

SELECT username, schema_name
FROM user_users;

This code queries the user_users data dictionary view to show a list of usernames and their corresponding schema names. You'll see that each user has a schema with the same name.

Remember: These are just examples. User creation and privilege management typically involve a Database Administrator (DBA) and follow specific security practices.



Schema Only Creation (Less Common):

Oracle allows creating a schema independently of a user using the CREATE SCHEMA statement. This is typically used for managing objects owned by the database itself or by system users. Here's an example:

CREATE SCHEMA shared_data;

This code creates a schema named "shared_data" that can be used to store objects accessible by multiple users with proper permissions. However, there's no user account associated with this schema by default.

User with Limited Privileges:

It's also possible to create a user with limited privileges who doesn't own a schema. This is achieved by omitting the CREATE TABLE or other object creation privileges during user creation. Here's an example:

CREATE USER auditor IDENTIFIED BY 'audit_password';
GRANT CONNECT, SELECT ON SYS.DBA_USERS TO auditor;

This code creates a user named "auditor" with the ability to connect and only access data from the DBA_USERS system view for auditing purposes. Since the user doesn't have object creation privileges, they won't have a schema by default.

Important Considerations:

  • Creating schemas independently is less common as users typically need a place to store their objects.
  • Users with limited privileges are useful for specific tasks but might not be practical for most database interactions.
  • The recommended approach for most scenarios remains creating a user with the CREATE USER statement, which automatically creates a schema for the user.

database oracle schema

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